Charging Up: CLF and Partners Release Electric Vehicle Report for Northeast/Mid-Atlantic Region

Oct 28, 2015 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment

EV_Cover_ImageToday, with partners Sierra Club and Acadia Center, CLF released a groundbreaking new report, Charging Up: The Role of States, Utilities, and the Auto Industry in Dramatically Accelerating Electric Vehicle Adoption in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States. The report can be downloaded here. The new report outlines the policy pathway states in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region should pursue to get more electric vehicles (EVs) on the road and slash greenhouse gas emissions. The report also demonstrates that, while each year more drivers are choosing electric, a significant gap remains between state goals and the current trajectory of EV adoption rates. The recommended policies are intended to close that gap.

Throughout the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region, exciting policies and programs are underway that are increasing electric vehicle adoption. For instance, Massachusetts has a Zero Emission Vehicle Commission advancing electric vehicle adoption in the state, which led to the Commonwealth offering a consumer rebate of up to $2,500 for EV purchases or three-year leases. In Vermont, Drive Electric Vermont ran another innovative rebate program in 2014, offering a $500 rebate to consumers purchasing an EV, paired with a $200 bonus to the dealer that sold the EV – to creatively incentivize EV sales at car dealerships. In the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania also offer such EV purchase rebate or tax-credit programs

How does your state measure up? Check out the comprehensive chart below identifying which programs and policies each state in the region has in place to advance EVs.


Does your state have policies that advance electric vehicles? Click the graphic to find out.

While there are some examples of successful programs to advance EVs in the region, we still have a long way to go. As the infographic below shows, with about 30,000 zero-emission vehicles on the road across the region right now, we really need to pick up the pace to reach our current goal of several million zero-emission vehicles on the road here by 2025.


How can we go from 30,000 electric cars in our region to several million? Click to download the graphic.

Our new report focuses on high-impact opportunities to increase electric vehicle use in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. Emphasizing the need for an all-hands-on-deck effort from government, utilities, automakers, and auto dealers, the report lays out a full range of priority actions and policies to accelerate EV adoption. Please read the report and share it widely. Most importantly, tell your policymakers that you’d like to see them do more to support EVs in your state.

Guest Blog: Fuel Tracking Makes Sense for Massachusetts

Sep 3, 2015 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment

Conservation Law Foundation has been working closely with the Union of Concerned Scientists and other partners to advance legislation that would implement transportation fuel tracking in Massachusetts. What is fuel tracking and why is it important? David Babson, senior engineer for Union of Concerned Scientists’ Clean Vehicles Program explains:

I have been traveling to Massachusetts a lot lately. I like Massachusetts, I attended college there, I met my wife there, her family still lives there, and I genuinely like Bay Staters. However, my recent travels have not been to visit old friends and family. Instead, I have been spending time in MA talking to its legislators about fuel tracking, a policy designed to monitor changes in the Commonwealth’s transportation fuel mix and the progress it may be making in reducing its climate emissions.

Tackling climate change in MA: More steps forward and no steps back

Perhaps one of the reasons I like MA so much is that its combination of tough-minded, hardworking, well-educated, and progressive residents make it very entrepreneurial. This innovative spirit extends to both its business community and its political culture; so it is no surprise that MA is one of the leaders in dealing with climate change. In fact, MA established its Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA) to create a framework for reducing climate emissions nearly seven years ago. To achieve the ambitious goal of 80% reductions in climate emissions by 2050, it requires reductions from all sectors of the economy, including the transportation sector. But the changing state of oil complicates these efforts because not having good data about the transportation fuels being used in MA makes it difficult to verify how much progress MA is really making toward achieving its climate goals.

When it comes to climate emissions from transportation fuels, tailpipe emissions from our vehicles are not the full story. Just as it matters whether our electricity comes from a coal burning power plant or a wind farm, it matters from which sources of oil we refine our fuels.

In 2008, the year MA began implementing the GWSA, North Dakota (ND) extracted fewer than 63 million barrels of oil from its Bakken shale. In the intervening years, as MA began tackling its climate emissions, oil extraction in ND’s Bakken ballooned 535% to nearly 400 million barrels in 2014. During the first two months of this year oil extraction was greater than that produced in all of 2008, and it is on track to top 400 million barrels by the end of 2015. Unfortunately, the lifecycle climate emissions from Bakken oil can be quite high, due to excessive flaring and venting of methane gas, and a growing share of this oil has been flowing to east coast refineries, whose resulting fuels have found their way into the MA fuel mix.

Thus, while MA has worked to reduce its climate emissions over the past 7 years, a critical climate impact factor – its fuel’s carbon intensity – has been changing under its feet without any notice. And I suspect that as a result of these changes, the carbon intensity of MA’s fuel mix is greater today than it was just seven years ago. Fuel tracking is needed to accurately estimate MA’s transportation sector climate emissions and to ensure it continues to take the needed steps towards achieving its climate goals.

Better data are needed to ensure MA is on course to meet its climate goals

The fact of the matter is that changes to the MA fuel mix will continue. Perhaps more Bakken oil will contribute to the mix in the years to come, perhaps, as predicted, tar sands oil may begin entering MA in greater proportions, perhaps both will happen, or possibly neither. The point here is that the carbon intensity of MA transportation fuel is changing, and if we don’t ask the right questions, we certainly won’t get a complete accounting.

Climate emissions from the transportation sector are the single largest source of climate emissions in the Commonwealth, but a full climate accounting for these fuels cannot be quantified because the refineries from which the fuels are arriving in MA are not disclosed. Cutting fuel use is critically important, but if the fuels entering the state are getting dirtier, the hard won emissions reductions from reducing consumption could be being offset by the higher upstream emissions from dirtier fuels.

MA Climate Emissions by Sector

Luckily, MA is considering measures to track its transportation fuels and their associated climate emissions (H745 and S456). This would provide necessary information about the MA fuel mix, allowing progress under the GWSA to be monitored and better policies to be implemented going forward. Without such information it will be difficult to ensure that MA keeps moving forward and its climate emissions keep moving downward.

Opponents of fuel tracking in MA don’t dispute the need – they wrongly dispute its feasibility

On May 28th I attended a legislative committee hearing in MA where I offered testimony supporting tracking and reporting requirements for transportation fuels. More than a dozen individuals and organizations spoke in support of fuel tracking, but one set of testimony stood-out in opposition. This testimony was from the Massachusetts Petroleum Council, a division of the American Petroleum Institute. They did not argue against the need for fuel tracking, or even try to refute that such tracking is required to more accurately estimate fuel carbon intensity; rather, they argued that the mandate would be impossible to fulfill. This is false, and this testimony intentionally attempted to over-complicate the fuel supply chain in order to distract from and blur how minimal the necessary burdens would be. In fact, fuel tracking is already included among broader clean fuel policies in the European Union, British Columbia, California, and elsewhere.

The carbon intensity of MA’s fuel mixture has changed and it will continue to do so. In order to ensure progress is being made to reduce transportation sector climate emissions, fuel tracking is needed. In keeping with its tendency to lead on climate issues, MA may become the first northeast state to adopt fuel tracking measures, but it would not be the last. Regardless of where we live, without fuel tracking, there is great uncertainty about how dirty our fuels actually are – and we have a right to know.

About the author: David Babson is a senior engineer for the Clean Vehicles Program. He focuses on fuel and fuel policy, including advanced biofuels. Based in Washington, D.C., Dr. Babson has extensive research and policy experience. He served as a AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the Environmental Protection Agency’s Transportation and Climate Division, where he reviewed key initiatives like the Renewable Fuel Standard. See David’s full bio.

With Massachusetts’ legislators on the verge of debating this critical fuel tracking bill, we’ll soon be calling on our activist community to take action. Don’t miss this chance to make your voice heard: Sign up for our enewsletter so you’ll be the first to know when you can get involved.

In Rhode Island, the Answer is Yes on Bond Issue #6

Sep 24, 2014 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment

On election day, Rhode Islanders will have an opportunity to address climate change by voting in favor of Transportation Bond Issue #6.

The “Transit Infrastructure Bond Referendum,” will help provide much-needed funding for enhancements and renovations to mass transit infrastructure throughout Rhode Island. This, in turn, will improve the public’s mobility and access to jobs, schools, and health care – and reduce carbon emissions.

Today Rhode Island has one of the most extensive and comprehensive suites of renewable energy legislation in the country. These renewable energy laws are effectively reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector – and nationwide, the electricity sector is the largest contributor to carbon pollution. But here in Rhode Island (as in the rest of New England), it is the transportation sector that is both the largest contributor to carbon emissions and the fastest growing!

That means that unless and until environmentalists address the transportation sector, we will not be able to achieve the carbon-emission reductions we will need to stop climate change.

The surest, quickest way to reduce carbon emissions from transportation is to provide additional funds for public transit. That’s why in 2008, CLF helped to found, and has remained active in, the 49-organization Coalition for Transportation Choices (CTC). For years, CLF and CTC labored to get additional funds for public transit – you can see my prior blog posts about our unsuccessful efforts in 2012 and in 2013.

Luckily, stick-to-itiveness is the hallmark of CLF advocacy, and our efforts produced some modest success in 2014, when the General Assembly enacted Budget Article 21. This measure introduced indexing for the state’s gas tax, increased some motor vehicle inspection and licensing fees, and dedicated a portion of the additional money to improving and expanding public transit in Rhode Island.

In November, Rhode Islanders will have an opportunity to build on that success by passing Bond Referendum #6. Proceeds of the bond referendum will be used to help public transit in Rhode Island move away from the current single “hub” model to create a more robust system with direct, rapid connections. Improvements are planned for Providence and throughout the current RIPTA system. There will be a new intermodal hub at the Providence Amtrak station and enhanced commuter rail service.

The fight against climate change will necessarily involve a multi-pronged strategy. Renewable energy laws are important, but transportation is important, too. Reducing carbon pollution from the transportation sector requires expanding public transit through additional funding.

That’s why CLF is supporting a “yes” vote on Bond Issue #6.

Calling Governor Patrick: Hold the Line Against Dirty Fuels in Massachusetts!

Sep 4, 2014 by  | Bio |  1 Comment »

Today 15 environmental organizations, including CLF, submitted this letter to Governor Deval Patrick. The letter calls on Governor Patrick to step up and take action against the anticipated entry of high-carbon tar sands–derived fuels into the Commonwealth’s fuel supply.

Massachusetts has taken some important steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – leadership in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), passage of the Global Warming Solutions Act, the recent Zero Emissions Vehicle Memorandum of Understanding, to name a few), but those excellent initiatives could be undermined if high-carbon fuels derived from tar sands enter our fuel supply. A recent report shows that by 2020, these dirty fuels could make up 11.5 to 18 percent of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic market – compared to less than 1 percent in 2012. This huge change comes with major climate impacts: enough additional carbon pollution to wipe out the gains under RGGI. Action must be taken to prevent this onslaught of dirty fuels from undoing the hard-won efforts Massachusetts is pursuing to reduce climate impacts.

While Governor Patrick showed initial leadership in pursuing regional policy solutions to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels, including initiating a memorandum of understanding on the development of a regional Clean Fuels Standard (signed by 11 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states), Massachusetts has yet to take action to adopt that policy. Given the incredible risk presented by the introduction of tar sands–derived fuels into the local fuel mix, now is the time for Governor Patrick to act. In our letter, the environmental community calls on Governor Patrick take the immediate step of beginning to track the sources and carbon intensity of our fuels, as well as to establish a mandate that the carbon intensity of our transportation fuel mix can’t get worse.

Recent letters from Governor Shumlin and Governor Hassan show that regional support is building for this effort, and that Governor Patrick can and should step up and be accountable for the climate impacts of Massachusetts’ fuel supply. We’re looking to Governor Patrick to reclaim his leadership role on this issue, starting with a commitment to take action immediately.

Stopping State Handouts for Sprawl

Jul 21, 2014 by  | Bio |  4 Comment »

Over the past year it has been troubling to see large new development projects planned for areas around Vermont’s highway interchanges. It was not that long ago that Vermont’s then Governor Howard Dean issued an executive order protecting our highway interchanges from sprawl development.

Our public dollars created the interstates and we have a responsibility – to our pocketbooks and to our environment – to take good care of them.

That responsibility includes avoiding traffic snarling commercial sprawl at our highway exits.

Highway sprawl is expensive. A look at the roadway improvements planned around Burlington, Vermont, including two multi-million dollar interchange re-builds, show that many of them are needed now because of the commercial sprawl that sprang up around these exits.  As federal transportation dollars dwindle, we can ill afford to promote sprawl near highway exits that is guaranteed to require new and expensive upgrades in the coming decades. As we drive more to reach commercial developments near highway exits we increase pollution and greenhouse gases as well.

Governor Dean’s executive order from 2001 recognized that development at interstate interchanges can mar not only the scenic character of the state, but also can impair natural and agricultural resources and harm tourism. It directed state agencies to foster conservation of land in and around the highway interchanges.

Moving away from Governor’s Dean’s vision, this past year developers proposed changing Vermont’s Act 250 land use law to make it easier to build on valuable farmland. A poster child for this was a massive new commercial project planned for the Randolph highway exit. The plan would pave nearly all the farmland at the highway exit and replace it with a large commercial development, a portion of which would serve as a state visitors’ center.

Instead of protecting land around the interstate, state agencies would be partners with this sprawl development.

The proposed Act 250 change that would have helped this project never passed the Vermont Legislature, and the project appears to be on hold.

Now there is a proposal for a new truck stop-like huge convenience store along with a “state sanctioned welcome center” on a farm field just twenty miles up the road at the Berlin exit in Vermont. Traveler services are needed, but they come at too high a price if they are married to massive sprawling commercial developments at our highway exits.

This past year the Vermont Legislature did amend Act 250 to provide stronger protections against strip development outside of town. If some of these projects at our highway interchanges move forward it will be a good test of this new protection.

In contrast to these highway developments, the Vermont Judiciary just announced that it will move the State’s Environmental Court to downtown Burlington. This is good news. The Environmental Court, which hears appeals of Act 250 and local land use decisions, will no longer be in a stand-alone office building on a farm field outside of town. Instead it will set a good example for developers by being better integrated with other courts and closer to services in a downtown location.

Our public dollars, natural resources and scenic beauty are too important to squander in exchange for some short-term savings that burden future generations with more pollution and higher costs. Like the Environmental Court, the public investments and development decisions we make today should stand as good examples for generations.

A version of this post first appeared in the Sunday July 19 edition of the Rutland Herald and Barre- Montpelier Times Argus.

Transportation Matters for Maine

Apr 3, 2014 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment


The Downeaster Boston–Portland service has exceeded its growth expectations every year.

Let’s face it, Maine is a big rural state (larger than the five remaining New England states taken together), where lowering greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles has been and will be a continuing challenge. CLF’s Maine office is actively engaged in three different projects with a wide range of partners who are determined to find practical solutions while improving the quality and sustainability of transportation services.

For more than two decades, as the Portland area has grown and expanded, there has been talk of creating a transit district in southern Maine that could improve and expand customer service across the diversity of travel modes, including fixed-route and on-demand bus services, ferries, and passenger rail. CLF has a seat on the Portland Area Comprehensive Transportation System transit committee, and Public Policy Advisor Malcolm Burson is playing a key role in facilitating conversations among public officials and transit operations managers.

In February, the first draft of a Transit Consolidation Feasibility Study was presented by outside consultants. A number of options are on the table, awaiting cost-benefit analysis, but it’s clear that a strong preference exists for a merger of three fixed-route providers. This would be the first step toward the eventual inclusion of other providers in a district that could serve approximately 40% of Maine’s population.

Senior Attorney Greg Cunningham, meanwhile, has led the effort to develop a pilot project designed to expand awareness and availability of electric vehicles (EVs), including their related charging infrastructure in Maine. CLF developed a straw proposal for a Greater Portland–based pilot that will provide grants for EVs and charging stations, look to create partnerships with businesses and municipalities to further EV technology use and awareness, and to collect data related to EV usage. The proposal was largely adopted by a working group comprised of EV advocates and representatives from Central Maine Power and was approved by the Public Utilities Commission. The pilot was initiated in March. “EVs have the potential to drastically reduce air pollution, including significant carbon emissions, from the transportation sector,” said Cunningham. “We hope that this pilot puts more EVs on the road and helps to demonstrate to Mainers just how convenient and cost effective this technology has become.”

Maine has been a great success story for the expansion of passenger rail in northern New England. The Downeaster Boston–Portland service has exceeded its growth expectations every year and recently expanded service to now serve Freeport (think L.L. Bean) and Brunswick, home of Bowdoin College. Once again, ridership exceeded projections from the first day of service, with greater numbers of passengers who were clearly using this as a commuter option. Now, the Maine Department of Transportation has convened a Passenger Rail Advisory Council to look at the opportunities and challenges for expanding passenger rail service in Maine. Executive Vice President and CLF Maine Director Sean Mahoney has been asked to serve on the Council as the representative from the public-interest sector. According to Sean, “the opportunity to increase transportation alternatives for Mainers and decrease dependence on cars has significant upside for Maine’s economy and environment, and I look forward to working with other members of the Council to capitalize on that opportunity.”

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Massachusetts Leading the Way on Electric Vehicle Transit

Dec 12, 2013 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment


One of the six WRTA buses that comprise the largest fleet of EV buses in the Northeast.
Photo credit: CMRPC

The Worcester Regional Transit Authority (WRTA) is about to make Massachusetts a national leader in electric vehicle, or “EV”, transit. The WRTA has just purchased three additional electric buses, which will join the existing bus fleet of 46. This includes ten hybrid buses (diesel-electric) as well as three existing electric buses. With a grand total of 6 EV buses, the WRTA will operate the largest electric bus fleet in the Northeast.

According to Stephen O’Neil, Administrator at the WRTA, the motivation to implement an electric fleet of public transit buses began with the practical consideration of rising fuel costs. The promise of cost-effective electric technology and a desire to be less dependent on fossil-fuels inspired the WRTA to apply for a Federal Transit Authority Clean Fuels grant. With a grant of $4.5 million awarded in 2012, the WRTA purchased three electric buses and fast-charging equipment. The grant was the second largest awarded in 2012 for electric vehicles and equipment.

Electric vehicles are known for being quiet, clean, and efficient alternatives to traditional internal-combustion vehicles fueled by diesel or gasoline. Here are some anticipated benefits of EV technology:

  • EV buses emit 280,200 pounds less CO2 each year than a bus operating on diesel, and 316,000 pounds less CO2 each year than a bus operating on compressed natural gas (CNG).
  • EV buses are ultra-quiet at 60 decibels – about half the level of noise produced by a typical bus.
  • An EV battery will only need to be replaced every 7–8 years.
  • EV buses rely on fewer parts and equipment than what is needed to maintain diesel-powered motors; one vehicle is expected to save about $135,000 in maintenance costs alone over the lifetime of each bus.

The new EV buses are expected to save on the cost of diesel fuel without disruption to the transit schedule. A standard 18-ton EV bus will charge completely in ten minutes. Only five to six minutes are necessary to get the battery to a “sweet-spot” (between 20–80% of full charge). This level of charge is adequate for EV buses to run about 22–30 miles and still adhere to their schedule. Aside from some initial charging hiccups associated with bus alignment at charging stations, the electric fleet is ready for service.

The WRTA strategically selected optimal EV routes after a comprehensive analysis of local topography. In keeping with certain considerations, such as the lack of charging stations farther out in the suburbs, as well as the fact that travel on an incline uses up more battery, the EV fleet will operate on a relatively flat route within an hour of a charging station at all times.

Additionally, the WRTA is working to anticipate and prepare for any concerns related to the oncoming cold weather. The WRTA anticipates having accumulated enough data by spring to determine whether the EV fleet indeed will stand up against Massachusetts winter storms and temperatures as expected. Once the WRTA supplies the figures to underscore a truly efficient, cost-effective EV fleet, other state and regional transit authorities will hopefully hop aboard the EV bandwagon. Until then, the WRTA and Massachusetts zoom ahead of the pack as the Northeast’s EV-transit front-runner.

Learn more about CLF’s work to create healthy communities across New England.

Getting Around — WITHOUT the Circ Highway

Nov 22, 2013 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment

After decades of fighting the Circ Highway – an outdated massive highway ring-road once planned around Burlington Vermont – CLF is now part of the unanimous support for the final round of projects that will replace the Circ.

The very good news is that the 34 projects being advanced will improve existing roadways and intersections, significantly advance bicycle, pedestrian and transit, protect floodways and go a very long way toward better matching transportation in the areas outside of Burlington with the long-term community needs.  Supporting growth centers instead of sprawl and making sure EVERY project includes facilities for bicycles and pedestrians will help more people get around.

And perhaps best of all, the entire suite of alternatives comes in at HALF THE COST of the full Circ highway.

More details on the performance metrics are here.

The final projects make great strides and include many alternatives CLF and others advanced nearly a decade ago, as well as many projects that have been priorities for towns near Burlington.

The unanimous support for a broad suite of projects bodes well. The Governor of Vermont attended the final meeting of the “Circ Alternatives Task Force” – a big group of state and town officials, environmental & business advocates and others that spent the past 30 months developing these recommendations, which were put forward in three phases. Governor Shumlin praised the group’s hard work and commented that our efforts exceeded his expectations when he announced in 2011 that the Circ Highway would not be built as planned and established the Task Force to come up with alternate solutions. Unlike the Circ, these projects are all do-able and many are already underway.

By the numbers this is what the projects look like:

  • Roadway miles enhanced and shared shoulders created          7.5
  • Number of intersections improved                                          26
  • Interstate Interchanges upgraded                                            2
  • Park & Ride spaces created                                                  ~120
  • New Transit Services created                                                   4
  • Miles of shared Use Paths and sidewalks created                        8
  • Flood Hazard Mitigation Projects                                               1

More work remains, but it is terrific that some much needed and more environmentally friendly projects will move forward.

Driving Climate Change

Nov 20, 2013 by  | Bio |  Leave a Comment


photo courtesy of Paul

A version of this article appeared in the November 17, 2013 edition  of the Sunday Rutland Herald / Times Argus.

The biggest contribution to climate change in Vermont comes from how we get ourselves around. As a rural state we rely on cars — and they burn a lot of gasoline, producing significant greenhouse gas emissions. To responsibly address climate change, we must take a hard look at our cars and our tailpipes and take a big bite out of our gasoline use.

Fortunately electric vehicle use is on the rise. According to Drive Electric Vermont, the number of electric vehicles on the road in Vermont quadrupled in the last year.  Currently more than 400 electric vehicles are registered across the state. In the last three months alone, Vermont saw a 50 percent increase in electric vehicles.

Vermonters are rapidly embracing this cleaner choice, and new initiatives will make it easier and less costly for more people to “drive electric.”

Vermont is one of eight states — four in New England and California, New York, Maryland and Oregon — that recently announced efforts to collectively put 3.3 million electric vehicles on the road by 2025 and develop the fueling infrastructure to support them. 

Electric vehicles can be either all electric or can be plug-in hybrids that rely on gasoline engines and can also plug into a socket for power. For most commutes, all-electric vehicles provide ample range between charges — about 80 miles — and can be plugged into an outlet either at home or work. Plug-in hybrids have the same travel range as gasoline-powered cars.

The cost of electric vehicles dropped over the past two years. Leasing an all-electric car costs about $200 per month and is quite comparable to the cost of many other car leases. The big savings is in pollution and fuel costs.

All-electric cars have one quarter the fuel cost of gasoline-powered cars. They run on the equivalent of about $1 per gallon gasoline.

Including all the costs over the lifetime of the car, electric vehicles cost less than a gasoline-powered car. Many makes and models of electric vehicles are currently available, including cars from Ford, Chevrolet, Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi and Tesla.

Operating electric cars reduces soot and greenhouse gases and gets us closer to meeting our climate goals and using our power sources more efficiently. Electric cars are more efficient than gasoline cars: They use more of the power available and produce less wasted heat.

In terms of greenhouse gases, one all-electric vehicle produces less than one-third of the emissions of a Subaru Outback. And riding a bicycle or walking near an electric car is like a breath of fresh air, since they don’t leave you breathing smoke and fumes.

To run clean electric cars, we must consider the source of electricity used to power them — and keep that electricity supply clean and renewable. Looking into the future,  all-electric cars will be useful in better managing our electric power grid as we work to achieve Vermont’s goal of 90 percent renewable energy use.

To encourage use of electric vehicles, Vermont already has low interest loans for public charging stations. And with its partner states Vermont will be developing additional incentives: improved building codes that will make it easier to construct new car charging stations, additional electric vehicles in public car fleets, financial incentives to promote cleaner cars, and lower electricity rates for electric vehicle  charging systems.

Vermont needs electric cars for many important reasons — to meet our climate goals, reduce air pollution, break our addiction to oil and save families money. Electric vehicles provide a piece of the transformation that is urgently needed to move away from fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The recent devastation in the Philippines is another critical wakeup call that reminds us all why we need measures like these.

The efforts of Vermont and other states, represent an important piece of the transformation required to head us toward cleaner and lower-cost ways to get around.